Techniques and Applications of Digital Watermarking and Content Protection

[ Small Cover Photo of 'Digital Watermarking and Content
      Protection' ]

This book is the result of research on issues of the protection of intellectual property (particularly multimedia data) and the limits thereof conducted by my colleagues Michael Arnold and Martin Schmucker and myself (although in the latter case on and off) over the last ten years.

This book is not only an attempt at presenting an introduction to number of techniques for such mechanisms, primarily focused on digital watermarking but also including other mechanisms; it strives to place these techniques into a context provided by application scenarios and their requirements as well as the legal and - to a modest extent - ethical contexts all such research and development must be conducted in. Given this premise, particular attention is paid to clearly showing the limits of the currently known techniques and algorithms within the particular context of intellectual property protection.

We hope that the present book can serve as both an introduction to the field to both students and researchers providing sufficient background for further studies and as guidance for the assessment and - if necessary - selection of technical means for intellectual property protection.


  1. Introduction
    1. The Origins of Copyright Protection
    2. The Protection of Intellectual Property through Technical Means
    3. Integrity and Authenticity
  2. Digital Watermarking
    1. Rationale
    2. Digital Watermarking and Cryptography
      1. Steganography
      2. Digital watermarking
    3. First Generation Approaches
      1. Basic principles of watermarking
      2. Terminology
      3. First methods
    4. Beyond the First Generation
  3. Applications of Digital Watermarking
    1. Usage-Specific Requirements
    2. Copyright Protection
      1. Misappropriation by other content providers
      2. Illicit use by end users
    3. Annotation Watermarking
    4. Fingerprinting
    5. Automatic Playlist Generation for Rights Verification
    6. Multimedia Authentication
    7. Watermarking for Copy Protection
  4. Digital Watermarking for Still Images
    1. Classification and Application Requirements
    2. Photographic and Photorealistic Images
      1. Traditional watermarking methods
      2. Watermarking methods dealing with geometric distortions
      3. Content-based watermarking methods
    3. Binary and halftoned images
    4. Summary
  5. Digital Watermarking for Audio Data
    1. Requirements and Design
      1. Removal manipulations and attacks
      2. Misalignment manipulations and attacks
    2. Psychoacoustic Facts and Models
      1. Critical bands
      2. Masking effects
      3. Psychoacoustic model MPEG 1 layers I and II
    3. Perceptual Audio Watermarking
      1. Spectral weighting
    4. Algorithms.
      1. LSB coding
      2. Embedding watermarks into the phase
      3. Echo hiding
      4. Watermarking of compressed audio data
      5. Spread-spectrum audio watermarking
      6. Audio watermarking via the patchwork technique
      7. Mechanisms against desynchronization manipulations
  6. Digital Watermarking for Other Media
    1. Digital Watermarking for Video Data
      1. Application requirements
      2. Algorithms
    2. Digital Watermarking for Three-Dimensional Data
      1. Application requirements
      2. Data representation
      3. Operations and attacks
      4. Algorithms
      5. Quality
    3. Digital Watermarking for Two-Dimensional Geometry Data
    4. Digital Watermarking for Formatted Text
      1. Application requirements
      2. Algorithms
    5. Music Scores
      1. Application requirements
      2. Algorithms
  7. Attacks and Benchmarks of Digital Watermarks
    1. Threats and Risk Analysis
    2. Attacks
      1. Classification of attacks
      2. Removal attacks and manipulation
      3. Desynchronization attacks
      4. Embedding attacks
      5. Detection attacks
    3. Quality Evaluation of Watermarked Objects
      1. Psychophysical methods
      2. Audio data
      3. Image data
      4. Video data
    4. Benchmarking
      1. Concepts
      2. Automatic evaluation of watermarking algorithms
  8. Other Content Protection Mechanisms
    1. Copy and Usage Protection Schemes
    2. Analog Media Protection
      1. Fingerprinting
    3. Offline Digital Content Protection
      1. Cryptographic mechanisms
  9. Integrated Content Protection Solutions
    1. Digital Rights Management
      1. The Digital Transmission Content Protection Specification
      2. The Trusted Computing Platform Alliance system architecture
      3. The CIPRESS system
      4. Pragmatic aspects of digital rights management
    2. Tamper-Protection
      1. Techniques for software tamper protection
      2. Techniques for hardware tamper protection
  10. Conclusion
    1. Digital Rights Management Systems
      1. Privacy, competition, and freedom of speech
      2. DRM in commercial environments
    2. Digital Watermarking
    3. Outlook

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